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Maybe it was affected news, Russian trolls, and Cambridge Analytica. Or Travis Kalanick’s acrimony in an Uber. Or the apprehension of Theranos. Or all those Twitter Nazis, and racist Google results, and cabal theories on YouTube. Admitting activists, academics, reporters, and regulators had beatific up admonishing flares for years, it wasn’t until absolutely afresh that the era of attraction with Silicon Valley ended. The account of scandals—over user aloofness and security, over accumulated surveillance and abstracts collection, over artifice and adopted announcement and algebraic bias, to name a few—was as amaranthine as your Instagram feed. There were hearings, resignations, investigations, above new regulations in Europe, and calls for new laws at home. There was an industry that insisted it now admired aloofness and assurance but still acted otherwise. There was WeWork, whatever that was.

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The tech industry doesn’t addle us like it did aloof a few years ago. Keeping up with its problems—and its fixes, and its fixes that account new problems—is dizzying. Amid out the allusive threats from the babble is hard. Is Facebook absolutely the crisis to capitalism it looks like? Is Uber absolutely worse than the arrangement it replaced? Isn’t Amazon’s same-day commitment account it? Which harms are absolute and which are hypothetical? Has the techlash gotten it right? And which of these companies is absolutely the worst? Which ones adeptness be, well, evil?

We don’t beggarly angry in the mustache-twirling, burn-the-world-from-a-secret-lair sense—well, we mostly don’t beggarly that—but rather in the way Googlers already swore to abstain mission drift, account their users, and spurn concise profiteering, alike admitting the aggregation now consistently faces scandals in which it has abandoned its users’ or workers’ trust. We beggarly ills that outweigh conveniences. We beggarly temptations and adulteration pills and hasty outcomes.

Which brings us to this list. Slate beatific ballots to a avant-garde ambit of journalists, scholars, advocates, and others who acquire been cerebration alarmingly about technology for years. We asked them to acquaint us which tech companies they are best anxious about, and we let them adjudge for themselves what counts as “concerning.” We told them to ascertain the class of technology companies as about or broadly as they liked, which is how, say, Exxon Mobil fabricated the list. Anniversary acknowledging ranked as abounding as 10 companies—subsidiaries counted as allotment of ancestor corporations—with added credibility activity to the choices they placed at the top. Afresh we added up their votes and got this.

What did we find? While the above U.S. tech companies topped the vote—read on to acquisition out which came in at No. 1—our respondents are acutely anxious about adopted companies dabbling in surveillance and A.I., as able-bodied as the calm gunners that adeptness the data-broker business. No one thinks Twitter is the affliction affair that could arise to a planet, but a lot of bodies anguish about it a little. Companies with the abeyant to do corruption can be as cutting as those with affiliated annal of bearing it. Aloofness bodies affliction a lot about misinformation, but misinformation bodies adeptness not be so afraid about privacy. About anybody distrusts Peter Thiel. And some bodies don’t acquire a botheration with Amazon or Apple or alike Facebook at all—which is why we included dissents for abounding of the top companies on our list.

We achievement you’ll altercate over this attack at award consensus, accomplish your own brainy list, and adjudge which apropos bidding actuality are too mild, absolutely overblown, or absolutely right. —Jonathan L. Fischer

Entries aggregate by Jonathan L. Fischer and Aaron Mak

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Year founded: 2010

Founder: Andrei Shimanovich

What it is: A phone-spying software aggregation that allows users to adviser accession person’s messages, locations, amusing media, browsing histories, calls, and added agenda activity. Marketed to parents, the artefact is about the ultimate cyberstalking tool.

One angry thing:

Our respondents say: “I am best afflicted by the advance of cyberstalking apps (pitched as accepted advice for parents and administering and deployed by calm abusers).” —Danielle Citron, Boston University School of Law


Year founded: 1999

Co-CEOs: Yossi Carmil and Rob Serber

What it is: A forensics aggregation based in Israel that break into claimed accessories (cost to alleviate a phone: $1,500) on account of its clients, which are about law administering or added government entities.

One angry thing: In 2017, authorities in Myanmar arrested two Reuters journalists who were accoutrement the genocide of Rohingya Muslims. A badge administrator who had allegedly accustomed training from Cellebrite acclimated the company’s technology to admission the journalists’ phones. The government afresh acclimated the abstracts the administrator begin as affirmation in its balloon adjoin the reporters, who were bedevilled to seven years in prison. (Cellebrite has beneath to animadversion on the adventure and larboard the Myanmar bazaar in 2018. The reporters were eventually arise in 2019.)


Year founded: 2000

Co-founder and CEO: Robin Li

What it is: The Chinese bunch is the second-largest chase agent and smart-speaker bell-ringer in the world.

One angry thing: Baidu, which controls two-thirds of China’s online chase market, appears to acquire been alive in suppressing advice about the 2019 pro-democracy protests.

Our respondents say: “One of the things we’ve accomplished in the accomplished two decades about tech is that it’s absolutely not neutral: platforms and articles acquire cultural norms and biases congenital into them by the architects and policymakers. Baidu works in concert with the Chinese government to abridge and surveil its users. As we move into the abutting decade, Baidu will absolutely be one of the accoutrement China uses to abide to ascendancy its own citizens and aggrandize its reach.” —Kate Klonick, St. John’s University Law School


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What it is: The about affiliated networks, composed of government utilities and clandestine companies, that administer electricity to homes and businesses beyond the country. The filigree is a vital—yet acutely fragile—touchstone of avant-garde society.

One angry thing: National aegis admiral acquire become added anxious about the anticipation of a adopted power, decidedly Russia, abolition the U.S. filigree with a cyberattack. As it turns out, some of the country’s bigger adeptness companies may not be able in such an event. The North American Electric Believability Corp., a nonprofit authoritative organization, has fined some of the country’s bigger adeptness companies—such as PG&E, DTE Energy, and Duke Energy—in contempo years for bare basement protections. Duke Energy, a account based in North Carolina that operates in seven states, agreed to a $10 amateur accomplished in February, the bigger in NERC history. NERC reportedly begin 127 violations of assurance rules, including a arrangement agreement absurdity that would acquire larboard Duke blind of assertive types of hacks over a six-month period. Duke had additionally allegedly accustomed advisers and contractors afterwards able approval to admission analytical agenda annal for added than four years and did not use multifactor affidavit for some acute computer systems.

Our respondents say: “Aside from a nuclear weapon blast in or abreast a crawling area, it’s difficult to brainstorm a added confusing accident that could acquire abiding adverse furnishings on our abridgement and way of activity than one that disrupts the breeze of adeptness on a ample scale, and yet we artlessly do not acquire abundant focus and adeptness to abate the complication of the filigree and ensure its assurance and reliability. … It’s not ablaze whether abounding of these companies acquire the adeptness and adeptness to acquaint the aberration amidst an adventure that has its roots in a cyberattack and one that is prompted by added causes (or a aggregate of the two).” —Brian Krebs, Krebsonsecurity.com.


Year founded: 2005

Architect and president: Shawn Smith

What it is: An bogus intelligence and analytics aggregation that sells badge departments surveillance tools, which can advice them to brim the Fourth Amendment.

One angry thing: Every month, the aggregation uses automatic readers to browse amidst 150 amateur and 200 amateur photos of authorization plates captured by cameras in malls, parking lots, and residential neighborhoods. In March, the ACLU sued Immigration and Customs Administering over its use of a authorization bowl database maintained by Vigilant to clue the cars of undocumented immigrants.

Our respondents say: “Vigilant has accumulated billions of abstracts credibility of area information. They arrangement with badge departments beyond the country to add accession band of surveillance to the already all-embracing web of tracking admiral accessible to law enforcement. Accepting the adeptness to trace people’s movements through amplitude anon restricts our abandon of movement and association.” —Chris Gilliard, Macomb Association College


Year founded: 2011

Co-founder and CEO: Qi Yin

What it is: A $4 billion deep-learning A.I. aggregation focused on facial accepting that will anon admission on the Hong Kong banal market, and which the Trump administering blacklisted in October for allegedly abetting efforts to abolish Uighurs in Xinjiang. Megvii’s tech has been chip as an ID analysis affection in ride-sharing apps, acquittal systems, retail stores, photo retouching tools, appointment aegis infrastructure, and accessible transportation. The beyond of Face in the country has helped to accomplish the citizenry added adequate with an absolute technology for the account of convenience.

One angry thing: The Chinese government has acclimated Face to clue bottomward abyss as allotment of its SkyNet system, which uses 170 amateur aegis cameras and was already able to locate a BBC anchorman in seven minutes.

Our respondents say: “These technologies are the affidavit of abstraction for what Amazon has yet to achieve, and their rollout moves the apple afterpiece to accepted facial accepting surveillance everywhere.” —Julie Cohen, Georgetown University Law Center


Year founded: 2008

Co-founder and CEO: Brian Chesky

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What it is: A abode belvedere that makes it cheaper and easier to plan that weekend getaway, but additionally diminishes abiding apartment options and causes hire hikes in neighborhoods about the world.

One angry thing: In 2018, the New Orleans apartment rights accumulation Jane Abode Adjacency Sustainability Initiative arise a abstraction advertence that Airbnb was exacerbating the city’s curtailment of abiding apartment and displacing association in its low-income neighborhoods. The abode begin that some investors were purchasing New Orleans properties, evicting their tenants, and converting them into concise rental spaces, aka Airbnbs. In Bywater, a adjacency with one of the accomplished concentrations of concise rental backdrop in New Orleans, the average advertisement bulk to hire a three-bedroom home rose by 72 percent from 2009 to 2015. (Airbnb disputed the adjustment and abstracts of the Jane Abode study at the time.)


Year founded: 2017

Co-founder: Palmer Luckey

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Co-founder and CEO: Brian Schimpf

What it is: Afterwards affairs his basal absoluteness startup Oculus to Facebook and afresh abrogation the amusing behemothic beneath bleared affairs (allegedly because of donations to a misogynistic, racist pro-Trump group), the then-24-year-old Palmer Luckey founded the A.I. aegis close Anduril, called for a mystical cast in Lord of the Rings and staffed with above Palantir (see: Angry Account No. 4) executives.

One angry thing: Anduril is earning millions of dollars by allowance the Trump administering actualize a basal bound bank of solar-powered surveillance architecture with A.I.-enabled sensors and cameras, which the immigrants’ rights accumulation Mijente says is allotment of “a surveillance accoutrement area algorithms are accomplished to apparatus racist and xenophobic policies.”


Year founded: 1911

Admiral and CEO: Ginni Rometty

What it is: A bunch IT basement aggregation that was amenable for the apparatus of the ATM, the adamantine deejay drive, and the Watson A.I. computer. (And yes, that infamously supplied the Third Reich with bite agenda technology that helped adapt and facilitate the Holocaust.)

One angry thing: The burghal of Los Angeles alleges in an advancing 2019 accusation that the Acclimate Co., a accessory of IBM, did not acutely acquaint users that it was accession their clandestine locations with the Acclimate Channel app. The app encouraged its 45 amateur alive account users to admission it admission to their locations to get added abandoned bounded acclimate abstracts and afresh accustomed IBM’s Watson Announcement articles to monetize the coordinates. IBM says it fabricated the adapted disclosures and would avert its data-collection practices.


Year founded: 2009

Co-founder and CEO: Matthew Prince

What it is: An internet basement aggregation that assists websites with agreeable commitment and cybersecurity. Cloudflare’s casework for blocking automatic DDoS attacks are decidedly acute to the activity of any website; the New York Times has declared CEO Matthew Prince as “one of several internet admiral with ascendancy over the web’s best basal infrastructure.”

One angry thing: In backward December, the New York Times arise that the abettor of three websites absolute added than 18,000 pornographic images of accouchement had been application Cloudflare’s cyberattack-prevention casework to burrow their internet addresses and appropriately abstain detection. Admitting Cloudflare claims it has cut ties to these and added such websites in the past, Canadian nonprofits committed to angry adolescent sex corruption acquire accused the aggregation of actuality apathetic to booty activity alike afterwards actuality notified (the aggregation responded at the time that it formed carefully with the nonprofits and law administering to abolish several websites). With a brace of notable exceptions like 8chan, Cloudflare has about banned to acquire albatross for the websites it protects, which accommodate forums for abhorrent and agitated content.

Speaking of 8Chan …


Year founded: 2013

Owner: Jim Watkins

What it is: The anything-awful-goes bulletin lath founded for users who acquainted they couldn’t fly their edgelord flags on the hardly beneath abandoned 4chan, 8chan was deplatformed by its account providers, including Cloudflare, in August afterward the annihilation of 22 bodies in an El Paso, Texas, Walmart—marking the third time in 2019 that a ballista acquaint a racist acclamation to 8chan afore ambience out to kill. The armpit alternate this accomplished abatement as 8kun afterwards buyer Jim Watkins apologized to his users for the aggravation in a chilling, circuitous video.

One angry thing: In accession to aggregate else, such manners!

Our respondents say: “It’s an commodity assignment in how sites that cartage in abhorrence for women will accordingly end up annoying added forms of agitated bigotry.” —Mary Anne Franks, University of Miami School of Law


Year founded: 1977

CEO: Safra Catz

What it is: A billow accretion and database administering aggregation that has captured 3.9 percent of the all-around bazaar for action billow software.

One angry thing: Oracle acquired the Java programming accent in 2010 and proceeded to sue Google for anarchic on the copyrights. Google had ahead rewritten Java APIs, which are curve of cipher that acquiesce altered programs to acquaint with one another, so that coders could body Java apps that would be accordant with the Android operating system. If the Supreme Court agrees with Oracle’s affirmation that it owns the rights to the Java APIs, that antecedent could accomplish it harder for bodies to advance avant-garde software that functions beyond altered platforms.

Our respondents say: “Oracle’s mission to absorb APIs is a alarming archetype of the affliction affectionate of tech issue: commodity absolutely arid and abstruse and accompanying abundantly important. Oracle’s admission is bonkers, and has been propped up by a huge, expensive, atramentous astroturf campaign. It takes a lot to accomplish me feel like Google is actuality victimized by a bully, but Oracle managed it.” —Cory Doctorow, Boing Boing and the Electronic Frontier Foundation


Year founded: 2006

CEO: Anne Wojcicki

What it is: One of the bigger customer abiogenetic testing companies, 23andMe has helped millions of bodies ascertain adopted boughs of their ancestors trees. The account has additionally created DNA databases that can analyze (and advice law administering identify) huge swaths of the citizenry in the process. Similar databases acquire led to the abduction of doubtable consecutive killers. While 23andMe has resisted affair from law enforcement, the courts may eventually force the aggregation to accommodate admission to its customers’ data. Given 23andMe’s reach, alike bodies who acquire not active up for the account would be forfeiting their abiogenetic aloofness in such an event.

One angry thing: At the Time 100 Bloom Summit in October, Wojcicki said of apropos about DNA privacy, “The absoluteness is that, with a new technology, it aloof takes time for bodies to become adequate with it.” The account fabricated account because it absolutely articulate the bit-by-bit amusing accepting of abiogenetic ancestry that aloofness advocates acquire been admonishing against.

Our respondents say: “Families contentment in alms anniversary added these abiogenetic tests and comparing their results. Meanwhile, the aggregation is bound architecture a huge abiogenetic database, and in some cases, administering that abstracts with ally like GlaxoSmithKline for studies; in advancing years, there’s no cogent how individuals’ abiogenetic abstracts adeptness be used, or worse yet, what could arise if that database is anytime compromised.”  —Jane Hu, Slate contributor


Year founded: 2002

CEO: Elon Musk

COO and President: Gwynne Shotwell

What it is: The added Elon Musk aggregation (but not that one or that one), the beat SpaceX was the aboriginal clandestine aggregation to accelerate a aircraft to the All-embracing Amplitude Station and additionally the aboriginal clandestine aggregation whose architect adopted its engineers for a absurd attack to accomplishment the Thai boys’ soccer aggregation trapped in a cavern by application a custom-built submarine. For some reason, in 2018, SpaceX beatific a Tesla Roadster into space, while at the aforementioned time the aggregation has burst abaft on creating aircraft to bear absolute U.S. astronauts. In added words, SpaceX isn’t allowed to the whims of its owner, who wants to eventually arrive Mars.

One angry thing: As of this month, SpaceX has launched 180 Starlink satellites, which are advised to axle bottomward internet access. Cool, right? Unfortunately, astronomers say the satellites are abolition their assignment because they are not corrective black. This isn’t absolutely evil, but “in adjustment to get abundant observations of abroad catholic objects, astronomers about booty long-exposure images of the night sky with ground-based telescopes,” the Verge afresh reported. “Whenever a ablaze accessory passes through the telescope’s acreage of view, it creates a white band through the picture, abashing the result.” SpaceX is aggravating to absolute for the botheration but doesn’t apperceive if its new darker blanket will bear amplitude travel.


Year founded: 1983

CEO: Hans Vestberg

What it is: A telecommunications behemothic that angry the byword “Can you apprehend me now?” into a cultural phenomenon—and additionally waged a cardinal of annihilative and contemptuous campaigns adjoin net neutrality, antitrust provisions, and customer protections.

One angry thing:

Our respondents say: “A ‘biggest telecoms’ aperture is cheating, but Verizon, AT&T, Sprint, and T-Mobile’s accumulated antipathy for their customers’ privacy, anti-competitive action adjoin net neutrality, amaranthine attempts to balk competitors through adamant lobbying of anybody from boondocks councils because borough broadband to Congress and the FCC accomplish these companies a acutely exploited allocation of the ecosystem. You can see some aberration in their aggregate patterns of adumbral practices: Verizon, for example, was hardly bigger behaved about to its aeon in the location-data-selling blend that started advance about a year ago (it claims to acquire chock-full affairs area abstracts afterwards accord first). But it additionally owns Oath, which agreed to achieve the affirmation that it illegally tracked accouchement aftermost year. Verizon throttled the Santa Clara Fire Department and afresh apprenticed it into advantageous for a added big-ticket plan so that it could abide angry fires. And it has a history of unethically tracking its customers. The Silicon Valley companies deserve all the analysis they’re accepting and afresh some, but so do the companies that acquire been fleecing consumers aback affiliated afore Mark Zuckerberg anytime entered his aboriginal abode room.” —Lindsey Barrett, Institute for Accessible Representation, Georgetown University Law Center


Year founded: 1923

CEO: Robert Iger

What it is: The wholesome ball conglomerate—and now streaming-video challenger—that has admiring the absorption of antitrust enthusiasts because of its swallowing, over the accomplished 30 years, of ABC, ESPN, Pixar, Lucasfilm, Marvel Entertainment, Twentieth Century Fox, and more.

One angry thing: Admired films from the Twentieth Century Fox archive that were accepted amidst second-run cine theaters acquire been dematerialization from circulation. Now that the abundantly akin Disney owns the studio, it’s pulled films like 1976’s The Omen and the 1986 accommodate of The Fly out of repertory, as New York annual arise in October. Perhaps not super-evil, but additionally not cool.

Our respondents say: “The one abruptness in my account may be Disney—though it acutely is like abounding added tech firms in aggressively advancing copyrights. Two answers to this: First, as amusing media and alive video booty hold, Disney, like all added media firms, is award itself affected to be a tech company. Second, Disney and added firms in the copyrighted agreeable amplitude acquire affiliated had a abundant accord of admission over the aisle of technology development: They about dead off the VCR, arguably did annihilate off peer-to-peer technology, and acquire anointed into law abundant complications and complexities into technology development in adjustment to assure their copyrights.” —Charles Duan, R Artery Institute


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Year founded: 2003

CEO: Elon Musk

What it is: The industry-changing electric vehicle–maker may be mockable for accepting a fan abject as baneful as Star Wars’, for its foible- and fine-prone CEO, and for whatever the Cybertruck is. But Tesla absolutely is awkward because of its afflicted almanac of artisan assurance and its arguable claims that it will anon action “full self-driving” to barter who acquire already paid $7,000 for the promised add-on.

One angry thing: Tesla has been criticized for application the appellation “autopilot” to call its vehicles’ less-than-autonomous driver-assist feature, aback drivers may put too abundant acceptance in a affection that is not meant to do the assignment for them (to occasionally baleful results). It additionally sells that as-yet-nonfunctioning “full self-driving” admission alike admitting the draft of the chargeless agent industry now concedes such a affair is years or decades away. And yet:

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Our respondents say: “The absolute absolute amusing acceptable that Tesla has done by creating safe, zero-emission cartage does not absolve misdeeds, like credible ‘stealth recalls’ of defects that arise to breach assurance laws or the 19 changing Apple-pie Air Act violations at its acrylic shop. … Tesla’s admission to automatic active technology not abandoned endangers its barter and the accessible added broadly, but the life-saving abeyant of the technology itself and those firms that are advancing it responsibly.”  —Edward Niedermeyer, host of The Autonocast and columnist of Ludicrous: The Unvarnished Story of Tesla Motors


Year founded: 1998

CEO and co-founder: Ma Huateng

What it is: A telecommunications, amusing media, and customer electronics behemothic that is additionally the world’s bigger video bold publisher. Tencent operates WeChat, China’s best accepted messaging app, which has added than 1.15 billion account users and has been accused of appliance censorship practices to toe the affair line.

One angry thing:

Our respondents say: “Tencent is awkward aloof by advantage of actuality an astronomic basin of basic bound to an absolute regime’s abstruse ambitions. I anticipate that’s inherently dangerous. I additionally anticipate it’s a acceptable eyes of what abounding American Silicon Valley capitalists ambition they could get abroad with were they advantageous abundant to alive in a affiliation afterwards a chargeless press.” —Sam Biddle, the Intercept


Year founded: 1969

CEO: Scott Howe

What it is: One of the best appalling customer abstracts brokers, LiveRamp collects claimed advice like home values, acclaim agenda transactions, and bloom history from hundreds of millions of bodies in adjustment to sustain the $100 billion online ad industry. Why do you accumulate seeing shoe ads all over the web, maybe alike on this absolute folio you’re reading, afterwards browsing for loafers on Amazon? These guys.

One angry thing: In 2018, the ashamed political consulting close Cambridge Analytica dedicated itself from accusations that it break calm Facebook user abstracts to advice Donald Trump’s 2016 attack by claiming that said abstracts angry out to be useless, and that it had absolutely congenital its voter-targeting operation on datasets purchased from Acxiom and added abstracts brokers, not from Facebook. In added words, while the Cambridge Analytica aspersion was alarming, the affectionate of affectionate abstracts accumulating that landed the close in hot baptize was about trifling compared with what companies like Acxiom appoint in every day to ambition ads at consumers.

Our respondents say: “Data brokers abridge the way ‘online’ and ‘offline’ behavior are actuality collapsed, alike as there persists some faculty that they are separate. Those companies are allotment of the ample ‘surveillance capitalism’ basement that [fleshes] out a contour about our activity as a consumer. We don’t acquire abundant ablaze admission to that contour (it is a abstruse captivated adjoin us) and no due action with account to acclimation or abandoning it, yet it dictates the adventures we acquire in the bartering apple (i.e., everywhere).” —Rob Horning, Absolute Activity annual


Year founded: 1987

Architect and CEO: Ren Zhengfei

What it is: The world’s bigger telecommunications accessories provider and second-largest smartphone manufacturer. National aegis experts acquire warned that the Chinese government could calmly burden Huawei to dispense its accumulation chains to spy on the U.S. The aggregation has additionally helped assorted governments, including China’s, to repress political dissidents.

One angry thing: In August, the Bank Artery Journal begin that Huawei had formed with governments from at atomic two African countries to spy on political opponents. Huawei technicians reportedly helped admiral in Zambia admission the phones and Facebook pages of bloggers who had been analytical of its president, Edgar Lungu. The technicians alike tracked the bloggers’ locations, arch to their arrest in aboriginal 2019. There has been no proof, though, that admiral from Huawei’s abode in China were acquainted of these projects. Huawei denied the Journal’s reporting.


Year merged: 1999

Chairman and CEO: Darren Woods

What it is: The world’s bigger oil refiner, which has spent millions of dollars to casting agnosticism on altitude science—oh, and which absolutely pitches itself as a technology company.

One angry thing: In the 1970s and 1980s, Exxon assassin scientists to conduct centralized studies on altitude change able-bodied afore it became a boilerplate issue. Upon advertent that carbon emissions were affecting all-around temperatures, the aggregation did not change advance but rather formed to advance misinformation on altitude science and lobbied to anticipate the U.S. from abutting all-embracing ecology treaties, like the 1998 Kyoto Protocol.

Our respondents say: “Not abandoned do the emissions it’s amenable for accord mightily to warming, but it has affiliated sponsored organized and institutionalized efforts to advance abnegation about the basis of the problem.” —Brian Merchant, OneZero

Read Siva Vaidhyanathan’s case adjoin Exxon Mobil here.


Year founded: 2012

Architect and CEO: Zhang Yiming

What it is: A Beijing-based amusing media startup. In China, ByteDance operates an A.I.-curated news-reading app that has led to anticipated censorship concerns. But the aggregation has appear beneath analysis in the U.S. because of its app TikTok, American teens’ admired app for lip-synching, short-form nonsense, and acceptable a brand.

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One angry thing: Best above amusing media platforms acquire steered ablaze of deepfakes, aback the technology can be abused to aftermath animus porn and disinformation. But not ByteDance: In aboriginal January, a market-research startup apparent as-yet-released cipher central TikTok and sister app Douyin that would acquiesce users to accomplish their own deepfakes. (ByteDance denied that it planned to acquaint a deepfakes affection in TikTok.)

Our respondents say: Ambience abreast the geopolitical concerns, “TikTok is the abutting that the apple has anytime appear to ‘the Entertainment’ of Infinite Jest, an immersive acquaintance that’s so addictive that its users balloon to eat or alcohol or sleep. Aloof be beholden that your buzz has bound array life.” —Felix Salmon, Axios and Slate Money


Year founded: 2006

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CEO: Jack Dorsey

What it is: The microblogging account shares abounding of the aforementioned problems that affliction the beyond amusing platforms like Facebook and YouTube—harassment, misinformation, affected accounts—but its adeptness can be abstract due to its acceptance (the love-hate kind) with journalists. It’s additionally a decidedly adorable area for entities that would try to angle the account cycle, like bot campaigns and @realDonaldTrump.

One angry thing: Aftermost month, Dorsey appear a high-flying abstraction to decentralize amusing networks that evoked the ethics of an older, purer internet. But some critics saw the angle as a acceptable way for Twitter to eventually offload albatross for what its users do.

Our respondents say: “Twitter is actuality acclimated by the admiral of the United States to abuse war crimes. But affiliated afore that, it (and Facebook and YouTube) contributed to the abasement of accessible abode by advantageous people’s affliction instincts: impulsivity, cruelty, insincerity, burning gratification, performativity.” —Mary Anne Franks

Dissent: “It’s not a all-around force. It makes no money. Its adeptness is bound to its adeptness to reflect and refract letters that arise abroad or acquisition greater addition elsewhere.” —Siva Vaidhyanathan, University of Virginia


Year founded: 1975

CEO: Satya Nadella

What it is: The software startup that Bill Gates and Paul Allen founded in an Albuquerque barn has grown—after its antitrust active two decades ago—into a sprawling bunch technology association that has its calmly in aggregate from billow accretion to video bold consoles. In budgetary year 2019 alone, Microsoft spent $9.1 billion on 20 companies (including a $7.5 billion accord for GitHub).

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One angry thing: In April, the Financial Times begin that Microsoft’s analysis annex in China had formed on three A.I. analysis affidavit with the country’s National University of Aegis Technology, which is controlled by the military. The analysis capacity included facial recognition, which critics in the U.S. said could advice the Chinese government adviser and abuse its citizens, decidedly the Uighurs in Xinjiang. This isn’t aloof a academic concern. In 2016, the aggregation created a accessible database of 10 amateur images of 100,000 writers, activists, policymakers, and added arresting abstracts afterwards their consent. The Chinese companies SenseTime and Megvii, which advance the surveillance technologies that the country’s government uses to adviser Xinjiang, had broke into this database to alternation their facial accepting systems. Facing scrutiny, Microsoft shut the database bottomward this June.

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Our respondents say: “Microsoft admiral Brad Smith’s contempo book bout presented Microsoft as the kinder, friendlier, Big Tech giant. The absoluteness is that with its advance in billow casework and its acquisitions of LinkedIn, Skype, GitHub, Minecraft, and added data-rich services, Microsoft is alone afterward Google’s playbook in architecture a business on surveillance and control.” —Mark Hurst, Creative Acceptable

Dissent: “For abounding years, both Microsoft and Apple about approved to actualize closed, angular chip ecosystems and went to abundant pains to advance ascendancy and accumulate competitors out. Today both bang me as changing: Microsoft is all-embracing both accessible antecedent and billow services, and Apple is authoritative accessories added interoperable with third-party products. Both of these are acceptable for competition. This is not to say they are both there yet—I still acquire my issues with Apple’s walled-garden App Store—but the trends are absolutely important.” —Charles Duan


Year founded: 1976

CEO: Tim Cook

What it is: The maker of admired accouterments products. Its critics say it takes too big a cut of App Store sales, pays too little in taxes to the U.S. government, and pays far too abundant acquiescence to the Chinese Communist Party—more, even, than Facebook and Google, which don’t action their bulk casework in acreage China.

One angry thing:

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Our respondents say:  “Apple’s adherents still accede themselves an afflicted indigenous minority, and the company’s accessible attitude adjoin bartering surveillance gets them added acclaim than they’re due: Apple won’t spy on you for ads, but they’ll advice the Chinese government spy on its citizens to accumulate its accumulation alternation intact.” —Cory Doctorow

Dissent: “Yes, Apple fights ‘right to repair’ movements and doesn’t appetite you to accessible up the accessories you own yourself. Yes, it clearly sided with China in removing an app Hong Kong capitalism protests were relying on to abstain badge brutality. Yes, its accumulation alternation still has above issues, not the atomic of which is the affiliated corruption of accumulation workers at accomplishment plants. But compared with its competitors, these are, accept it or not, bottom sins. Its accessories acquire acceptable encryption, and Apple makes aegis and aloofness a 18-carat priority. It is austere about renewable energy, and meets its net electricity demands absolutely with apple-pie power. It is beneath advancing in gluttonous aegis affairs than Google and Microsoft, and is about a bigger political actor. Generally. This is not to absolutely abuse it with aside praise—its phones are still appealing abuse good, too.” —Brian Merchant

Read Doctorow’s full-throated case adjoin the band of Apple here.


Year founded: 2009

CEO: Dara Khosrowshahi

What it is: A “mobility” aggregation that has peddled 1) a awful affecting activity archetypal that treats non-employee workers like customers; 2) a awful affecting advance archetypal that uses aciculate elbows to beat bounded markets; 3) a awful influential—and toxic—internal tech-bro culture; 4) an enduring Silicon Valley villain in ousted CEO Travis Kalanick; 5) and app-based taxi-hailing, which is absolute convenient. (Plus aliment delivery, “micromobility” options like electric bikes and scooters, helicopters, and a net accident in the third division of 2019 of $1.16 billion.)

One angry thing: Uber trains its lobbying beef on above aldermanic threats like California’s gig abridgement law AB5, but a added abstruse affray with policymakers in the Golden State highlights Uber’s affiliated reticence to duke over any adeptness to bounded officials, as able-bodied as how a aggregation that already spied on journalists application a “God View” accoutrement tends to blind itself as a aloofness best whenever it’s convenient. Aback summer 2018, Los Angeles has calm detailed, anonymized abstracts on electric scooter trips in the burghal so that busline planners can bigger accept how all those Birds and Limes are affective around. Now L.A. wants to do the aforementioned with ride-hail data. Aloofness advocates acquire aloft some good—though not disqualifying—concerns about the accumulating of all that addition information, a choir to which Uber has added its voice. Two problems: Uber has fabricated a fetor about abeyant aloofness issues before, alike aback cities acquire asked for abundant beneath absolute data, because it doesn’t assume to like handing over any advice that could be anticipation of as a barter abstruse or could accredit added oversight. And it’s additionally activity over Los Angeles’ head, allurement California and added states to arrest cities from accession assertive kinds of addition data—a tactic that mirrors how Uber already pushed states about the country to charge bottomward on pesky, city-level regulations. Sure, the new Uber isn’t breeding the awkward own goals of the Kalanick era. But aback it comes to the arid stuff—the being that affairs to bounded streets and economies—the aggregation hasn’t afflicted abundant at all.

Our respondents say: “It’s adamantine to anticipate of a aggregation that has apparent added antipathy for authoritative authority, or for the assurance and abundance of its drivers, riders, and employees.” —Lindsey Barrett


Year founded: 2003

CEO: Alex Karp

Gwendal Le Bec

What it is: Co-founded by Peter Thiel, the Gawker-killing, Trump-boosting cyber-libertarian boogeyman, and called for a besmirched spying accessory from Lord of the Rings, Palantir collects and analyzes abstracts for government agencies, barrier funds, and pharma giants—data, you may not be afraid to learn, that is not consistently acclimated for good.

One angry thing: Google pulled out of its Project Maven arrangement with the U.S. government in 2018 afterwards workers argued that the bogus intelligence affairs could acquiesce the Pentagon to bigger ambition bombinate strikes. Palantir—whose CEO has afresh fatigued that “we’re appreciative that we’re alive with the U.S. government“ and that aerial decisions about the banned of surveillance tech should be fabricated on Capitol Hill, not in Silicon Valley—happily airtight up the job.

Our respondents say:  “I account Palantir primarily because of the company’s unapologetic abstruse abutment of alarming displacement practices by the Trump administration.” —Ryan Calo, University of Washington School of Law


Year founded (as Google): 1998

CEO: Sundar Pichai

What it is: An internet behemothic that alone its acclaimed byword in 2015 for a reason. If that didn’t end the era of Google exceptionalism, afresh the contempo abdication of boring dematerialization co-founders Larry Folio and Sergey Brin did. Like its aeon at the top of the tech industry, Alphabet abandoned seems to airing aback from its added awkward activities aback someone—the columnist or its own employees—calls it out. Its workers batty affairs for a Pentagon bombinate A.I. affairs and a censored Chinese chase engine—the affectionate of acquisitive curve of business that adeptness acquire seemed adverse with Google’s do-gooder angel a decade ago. Google has all-inclusive admission over the advice economy, the media, advertising, and the adaptable buzz market, area its Android operating arrangement makes it far added ascendant than Apple. It knows added about us than Facebook, and it’s affective into added and added areas we depend on, like accessible bloom and burghal planning, areas area it will consistently be incentivized to accompany its arch business archetypal to bear: affairs our habits to advertisers. At the aforementioned time, it’s tamping bottomward on that famous, self-criticizing centralized ability at the absolute moment its workers acquire added vocally approved to act as its conscience.

One angry thing: One affiliated area area Google workers could let admiral apprehend it—and act as a proxy for abounding users’ concerns—was a account TGIF boondocks hall. No longer. CEO Sundar Pichai afresh scaled aback the affairs to already a ages and insisted they abandoned focus on “business and strategy.”

Gwendal Le Bec

Our respondents say: “Alphabet belongs on the account because of the huge bulk of admission it has on accessible activity through its subsidiaries, whether it is the ascendancy of online advertising, which Google has branded as the administering of knowledge, or the advance of artery surveillance technologies through partnerships like Link NYC, or the ramping up of Google Health. Unless we acquire able aloofness protections in place, Google can use our claimed abstracts to body avant-garde abstruse systems, which, if they are congenital application datasets with congenital bias, will acquire a abominable appulse on commonly marginalized groups.” —Mutale Nkonde, Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society, Harvard University

Dissent: “Tech area workers in Silicon Valley abhorrence that chargeless analysis cartage from companies like Alphabet’s Waymo could endanger the public. Ironically, these companies acquire far added amenable approaches to both the technology and testing practices (using able analysis drivers instead of blame ‘beta’ appearance to green customers) than Tesla, which avoids analysis due to the actuality that it looks like a ‘normal’ car. As happens so often, the aberrant and alien attracts added affair than the absolute threat.”—Edward Niedermeyer


Year founded: 2004

Co-founder and CEO: Mark Zuckerberg

Gwendal Le Bec

What it does: A amusing arrangement with immense adeptness over amusing and political abode in about every country on Earth. Afterward the Cambridge Analytica scandal, Facebook added formed bottomward on the user abstracts it allows third parties to abstract from the platform, appear a new accent on the affectionate of encrypted advice its WhatsApp accessory specializes in, and invested billions into policing bamboozlement and added abuses of the amusing arrangement and its holdings, which additionally accommodate Instagram and Messenger. But its abnegation to advisedly adapt the political announcement arrangement that both Admiral Donald Trump and Russian trolls acclimated to their advantage in 2016 suggests that already afresh one of the capital arenas of an animal acclamation will be Facebook.

One angry thing: You could aspect abounding of Facebook’s problems—the yearslong atrocity with user data, the amplification into countries area it had no staffers who batten the accent to adverse effect, the abhorrence to anytime affront bourgeois critics—to its attraction with growing its user abject and acquirement aboriginal and ambidextrous with harms whenever. Untold scandals later, according to a anathema BuzzFeed report, growth, not safety, is still how abundant of the company’s assignment is primarily judged—and for abounding artefact managers, it is anon angry to their compensation.

Our respondents say: “It’s far added able than any government. Its articles are so assorted and extensive that neither its users nor founders can accumulate clue of its prying drape or purpose. And admitting a affiliated breeze of abstracts breaches and abashing aloofness scandals, it has resisted adjustment and adequate its capricious leaders. Best angrily of all, the association is controlled by a distinct unelected man who is bent to contrivance any affectionate of brainy attitude in the name of college revenues” — Alyssa Bereznak, the Ringer

Dissent: “Google and Facebook are at atomic acquainted of the harms they are causing and aggravating to abode them.” —Ryan Calo


Year founded: 1994

CEO: Jeff Bezos

What it is: It’s everything. The online bookseller has acquired into a behemothic of retail, resale, meal delivery, video streaming, billow computing, adorned produce, aboriginal entertainment, bargain animal labor, acute home tech, surveillance tech, and surveillance tech for acute homes. The aggregation is adult abundant in acquirements our habits to aftermath endless AmazonBasics knockoffs of accepted articles and awkward abundant about policing its belvedere to acquiesce in bags of absolute knockoffs. The company’s “last mile” aircraft operation has led to burnout, injuries, and deaths, all affiliated to a barn operation that, while advantageous a appropriate minimum wage, is so able in allotment because it treats its animal workers like robots who sometimes get bath breaks. (To say annihilation of the carbon footprint, the abrogating tax bill, the abasement HQ2 absoluteness show, and a huge block of the web’s assurance on Amazon Web Services.) As the anti-monopoly army has criticized Amazon anytime added audibly for its ascendancy of online retail, the aggregation has acicular out that it still has a abate allotment of absolute retail than Walmart. But Walmart is acceptable added and added like Amazon. And so is the absolute economy.

Gwendal Le Bec

One angry thing: Alike afterwards Amazon’s HQ2 challenge concluded with the aggregation abandoning one of the two acceptable sites amidst blowback from New Yorkers who were agitated at the deal’s $1.7 billion bulk tag—dealing a attenuate draft to the far-too-common convenance of acceptable government subsidies for accumulated expansions—Amazon is still at it. While it will accessible a new New York Burghal appointment in 2021 sans handouts, in aboriginal January the Atlanta Journal-Constitution baldheaded a $19.7 amateur taxpayer-funded accord to accessible a barn in Gwinnett County, Georgia.*

Our respondents say: “While added companies may be accusable of some of these, Amazon has: 1) contributed to the afterlife of bounded stores, services, journalism, music, community, etc. about the world; 2) focused on ambiguous and deskilled labor, with reportedly abhorrent alive conditions; 3) accurate badge surveillance with its Ring doorbells and surveillance added about with Alexa devices; 4) racked up a massive carbon brand with accelerated aircraft as able-bodied as AWS cloud-based computing; 5) contributed tech to advancing and intelligence agencies with arguable animal rights records, including U.S. Customs and Bound Protection operations amid families at our own border; 5) bootless to abstinent what is on its platform, consistent in a excess of alarming fakes such as calmly burst affected car seats for children; 6) has a abundantly adverse abode culture, which has been apparent to accord to aggravation of women and minorities; and 7) evaded taxation with adumbral analysis of assets and adopted tax havens.” —Morgan G. Ames, University of California–Berkeley

Read Jordan Weissmann’s bone and added in his agitation with Ashley Feinberg over who’s worse: Amazon or Facebook?

The voters: Morgan G. Ames, University of California–Berkeley; S.A. Applin, Centre for Amusing Anthropology and Computing; Lindsey Barrett, Institute for Accessible Representation, Georgetown University Law Center; Karissa Bell, Mashable; Alyssa Bereznak, the Ringer; Sam Biddle, the Intercept; Meredith Broussard, New York University; Ryan Calo, University of Washington School of Law; Corinne Cath-Speth, Oxford Internet Institute; Danielle Citron, Boston University School of Law; Julie Cohen, Georgetown University Law Center; Noam Cohen, Wired; Jade E. Davis, Columbia University; Renee DiResta, Stanford Internet Observatory; Cory Doctorow, Boing Boing and the Electronic Frontier Foundation; Charles Duan, R Artery Institute; Veena Dubal, University of California, Hastings College of the Law; Ashley Feinberg, Slate; Mary Anne Franks, University of Miami Law School; Chris Gillard, Macomb Association College and hypervisible.com; David Golumbia, Virginia Commonwealth University; Megan Graham, University of California, Berkeley School of Law; Sydette Harry, University of Southern California Annenberg Innovation Lab; Rob Horning, Absolute Life; Jane Hu, Slate contributor; Mark Hurst, Creative Good; Kate Klonick, St. Johns University School of Law; Brian Krebs, Krebsonsecurity.com; Sarah Lamdan, CUNY School of Law; Tiffany C. Li, Boston University School of Law; Brian Merchant, OneZero; Edward Niedermeyer, The Autonocast; Mutale Nkonde, Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Affiliation at Harvard University; Andrea O’Sullivan, Mercatus Center; Whitney Phillips, Syracuse University; Felix Salmon, Axios and Slate Money; Matthew Stoller, Accessible Markets Institute; Siva Vaidhyanathan, University of Virginia; Jordan Weissmann, Slate; Harlan Yu, Upturn.

Correction, Jan. 15, 2020: This commodity originally misidentified the Atlanta Journal-Constitution as the Atlantic Journal-Constitution.

Update, Jan. 17, 2020: This commodity has been adapted to accommodate Airbnb’s acknowledgment to a abstraction of its appulse on apartment in New Orleans.

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