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Every abundant abstruseness begins with a aboriginal clue. For NHPR adviser Hannah Robinson it was a alternation of belletrist in the mail.

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“I started accepting mail communications from the AARP and audition aid coupons,” said Robinson, “and I’m still accepting invitations to accompany retirement specialists for dinners and things like that — aloof things for addition who is abundant older.”

Robinson is aloof 37 years old. She’s decades abroad from retirement and her audition works aloof fine. And yet, a contempo flyer from a audition aid centermost asks her a cryptic question: “is it audition loss? or aloof earwax?”

At first, Robinson begin all of this a little amusing. But the added mail she got, the added she began to admiration if the acumen groups like AARP seemed to anticipate she was beforehand was not some accidental mistake, but because they knew article about her. Article absolute personal. Article they could potentially use to their advantage.

Just a few months afore she started accepting the abstruse letters, Robinson had a stroke.

“And it’s aloof absolute suspicious, the timing, because I acutely had a medical affair that happened that’s added accepted for bodies who are 65 and older. So I absolutely aloof kinda admiration if it’s linked,” said Robinson.

Did AARP somehow acquisition out that Robinson had a stroke? Were they application her medical abstracts to acquaint her a membership? Is this aloof a coincidence?

That was the catechism that Robinson brought to The Additional Greatest Show on Earth, NHPR’s new podcast that answers listeners’ questions about New Hampshire.

NHPR bloom anchorman Jason Moon took on the case and explored the shadowy, circuitous apple of data-collection and targeted advertising.

The Retail Theory

Riley says to amount this out I’ll charge to augment my angle of what counts as bloom information. Because she says, it’s not aloof medical records. Plenty of things we do alfresco the doctor’s office, like shopping, leave hints about the accompaniment of our health. Those hints could be as accessible as awkward up to the adverse to buy a set of crutches, or article added subtle, like a grocery barrow abounding of gluten-free food.

“I could apparently acquaint you added about your bloom by what you buy in the grocery abundance than I could through your bloom records,” said Riley. “You’re apparently added accurate in your grocery abundance affairs than in what you acquaint your physician.”

HIPAA does not assure advice about your retail purchases the aforementioned way it does your medical records. While your assay of a adventurous is kept arcane by law, the actuality that you bought an over-the-counter chrism to amusement rashes is not.

“We accept a absolute sectorial angle of privacy. We accept cyberbanking law, we accept bloom law,” said Riley. “And that fabricated faculty 50 years ago. But it doesn’t accomplish faculty aback you alpha cerebration about retail operations actuality able to, with circuitous algorithms, accomplish determinations about what you’re doing.”

In ablaze of this, retailers accept developed able agency of accession advice about us while we shop: adherence cards that clue your purchases over time, abundance apps that can booty area abstracts from your buzz — anytime been asked for your zip cipher at the register?

Once retailers accept all this advice about you, they use it in two ways. The aboriginal way is what you adeptness expect: they use the abstracts to bazaar their own articles to you. But you adeptness not apprehend how adult some food can get with this.

“There’s a absolute acclaimed adventure that anybody knows in the aloofness ancillary that involves Target,” said Riley, “which through its own algorithms was able to analyze a jailbait who was abundant afore alike her own ancestors knew.”

So if Ambition can amount out a client is abundant based on their purchases, it seems accessible addition abundance could’ve ample out that Hannah had achievement based on her arcade habits.

But obviously, AARP is not a retail store. How would they accept begin out?

That brings us to the additional affair that some retailers do with the abstracts they accumulated about you. They acquaint it. Acceptation that the abstracts that one aggregation collects about you doesn’t consistently break with that company. It can end up influencing the way a absolutely altered aggregation advertises to you.

So in Hannah’s case maybe that agency she bought some being that somehow signaled to one abundance that she had a stroke, which got her categorized as an beforehand person, again that advice was awash and eventually concluded up in the easily of groups like AARP.

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Makes sense. But there’s a problem. Pregnancy absolutely leads to a accomplished agglomeration of new purchases that could accord you away. But a stroke? What does a achievement victim buy from the store?

Let’s attending at some added suspects afore we decide.

The Cookie Theory

Jennifer King is Director of Customer Aloofness at Stanford Law School and a self-described “privacy zealot.” Aback I told her Hannah’s story, Jennifer anon doubtable it had to do with the internet.

“If she went to a armpit that was accurately on that topic, that armpit could’ve profiled her through cookies,” said King. “That could’ve been the affair that did her in.”

This ‘cookie theory’ starts with the actuality that about every website makes use of tiny files alleged accolade that are automatically downloaded by web browsers through accustomed use of the internet. In essence, accolade are the way that websites bethink you. They’re how Google keeps you logged in to your email alike afterwards you abutting your web browser. It’s how Amazon puts things into a agenda ‘cart.’ 

Some cookies, like the ones mentioned above, are alleged first-party accolade because they arise anon from the website you’re visiting. 

But your browser additionally collects third-party accolade from the ads on a website. Third-party accolade don’t aloof almanac what you do on the website area you best them up, they chase you, befitting clue of your action beyond altered websites over time.

“What they try to do is to clue you beyond amplitude and time, essentially,” said King. “To body as affluent of a contour as they can about you.”

Ever attending at a brace of shoes on one website, again get an ad for those aforementioned shoes on bristles added websites? Third-party tracking accolade accomplish that possible.

“It’s added or beneath ambiguous surveillance,” King argues. “Simply accepting consent, which in this country is absolutely a joke, authoritative you bang on a ‘terms and conditions’ button, bold you apprehend a aloofness action bustling up a 6,000 chat certificate in advanced of you and adage “better apprehend it.” In this country today, that’s abundant to acquiesce you to get abroad with ambiguous surveillance.”

But it’s one affair to surveil the action of one web-browser beyond the internet. How do we get from that to accepting targeted snail-mail announcement at your home address?

For that we charge to admission the apple of the abstracts brokers. This is a video from one the world’s largets data-brokers, Acxiom, which claims to accept abstracts on 2.5 billion consumers.


Looking to acquaint accurately to consumers who are added acceptable to adjustment advantage online? Or how about consumers with a “propensity to bless St. Patrick’s Day”? Or how about bodies who alone tune in to the big football bold to watch the commercials?

These are absolute categories of consumers that Acxiom says it can accord companies admission to. And it doesn’t stop there. Abstracts brokers accept reportedly tracked religion, sexual-orientation, and alike action alteration events.


In 2014, a abstracts agent awash a commitment account to Appointment Max that accidentally included one datapoint about a accurate chump in the commitment address. The abode on the envelope addressed to Mike Seay read: Mike Seay, babe dead in blast crash, or accepted business.

Mike Seay’s babe had in actuality died in a car blast about a year earlier.

Speaking to a TV reporter, Seay bidding his shock and outrage.

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“Why would they accept that affectionate of information? Why would they charge that? What purpose does it serve anybody to apperceive that? And how abundant added information, if they accept that, do they accept on me? Or anyone else?”

How do they do this? King says in contempo years abstracts brokers accept abstruse to ally the techniques of online and offline abstracts collection.

“They’re the ones who are aggravating to actualize a absolute contour of you. And so that’s the accumulated of the online and the offline data.”

Here’s an archetype of how it could accept formed in Robinson’s case.

Step 1: Let’s say years ago Robinson active up for in-store acclaim agenda at a accouterment store. To administer for the card, she had to accord the accouterment abundance her name, home address, and email address.

Step 2: That accouterment abundance sells all that advice to a abstracts broker. Now the abstracts agent has Robinson’s name, her email address, and her home abode in one abstracts set. That’s important, because now any online action the databroker can accessory with Robinson’s email address, they can additionally accessory with her absolute name and home address.

Step 3: Robinson has a stroke, and while in recovery, she does what any of us would do, she goes all over the internet to apprentice added about her condition. In the process, her web browser accumulates dozens of tracking cookies.

Step 4: The advice those tracking accolade accumulated about Robinson’s web action is awash to the aforementioned databroker that has her advice from the accouterment store. That databroker matches up her online action with her offline identity. Again they booty aggregate they apperceive about Hannah and characterization her with altered customer categories. Because she visited websites about acclamation she categorized as an beforehand person.

Step 5: The databroker sells a commitment account to AARP of bodies over the age of 65. A account which contains the name Hannah Robinson, (actual age 37).

This is the cookie-theory appearance of the case. Complicated and adopted admitting it may seem, article like it has happened before.

“One day out of the blue, I got this mailer from AARP suggesting that as a anew over-65 year old, I should anticipate about accepting membership.”

Kalev Leetaru is a researcher absorption on cyber-security and agenda privacy. And in his mid-thirties he suffered the aforementioned fate as Robinson: abstruse belletrist from AARP.

Being an able in the apple of agenda privacy, Leetaur absitively to investigate. He absitively to accost AARP directly.

“And they were absolutely accessible and apologized abundantly and said that they had gotten me from one of these abstracts brokers had able a commitment account for them,” said Leetaru.

But what does it beggarly that for both Kalev and Hannah, that the targeted announcement was so off-the-mark?

Kalev apparent that admitting the all-over tracking methods and adorned abstracts analysis, the abstracts brokers can get it wrong. By a lot.

“I looked at my own data. I requested my abstracts from a accomplished agglomeration of these, some of the better names out there, these abstracts brokers,” said Leetaru. “And they ranged amid 75 and 80 percent wrong. And they were wildly, berserk wrong.”

Kalev says his own abstracts abstracts predicted he would be agreeable to Forever 21, Sephora, children’s cafeteria box meals, and alien beer. All things Kalev says he doesn’t buy and has no absorption in.

“If the abstracts is this bad you alpha allurement the catechism of: yes it’s Orwellian but if that’s bad is that scary?”

I’ll leave it you to acknowledgment that question. But as far as Hannah’s aboriginal catechism goes, it looks like we adeptness accept our answer: the cookie theory. It’s absolute believable that afterwards her achievement she went online to apprentice added about strokes. And we apperceive that in at atomic one case AARP bought a account of names from a abstracts broker.

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But now that we apperceive the AARP will aloof acquaint us the answer, maybe it’s time went to the source.

“We do accept associates from time to time calling AARP allurement agnate questions about why they may accept accustomed a promotional flyer or letter from us,” said Pam Farrell, Vice President of Associates for AARP. 

Farrell said any time they get this question, they booty it seriously.

“Privacy and authoritative abiding that the abstracts we are application is of the absolute believability is absolutely important for us so we absolutely appetite get bottomward to the basal of what the affair is.”

Farrell said afterwards analytic through their commitment lists for Robinson’s name they begin a hasty result.

“What we were able to acquisition was that in actuality it does not appear, based on our research, that this being was absolutely mailed a direct-mail allotment from us.”

Farrell said the mail that Hannah accustomed went out to anybody in Hannah’s zipcode and that the flyers were addressed to “current resident.”  In added words, Farrell says Robinson was marketed to the ancient way, via mass-marketing, acceptation the actuality that it happened afterwards her achievement was simple coincidence.

When I bankrupt this account to Robinson, though, she was skeptical.

“You apperceive how AAA will accelerate you a affected agenda with your name on it? I accept a anamnesis of accepting one of those from the AARP,” said Robinson. “My name was absolutely on the envelope. And I’m appealing abiding it was on aggregate that was inside.”

To be sure, afterwards I met with Robinson, I went aback to AARP one added time. This time they broadcast their chase to attending added aback in time and apparent Robinson had been appropriate all along. She had accustomed targeted mail 4 times, alpha aloof a few months afterwards her stroke.

Where did AARP get her info? Acxiom. The aforementioned aggregation that says it can ambition bodies with a adeptness to bless St. Patrick’s Day, somehow got it in its database that Hannah had a altogether in June of 1956, which would accomplish her 61.

When I alleged to Robinson to acquaint her she had been vindicated there were yet added revelations.

“I don’t apperceive if this is related, but that’s my mom’s birthdate,” said Robinson. “Around that time aback my babe was built-in and I had my stroke, I anticipate I’d absolutely accustomed my mom one of my old cellphones, account she bare it in a pinch.”

The new advice provided a new abeyant band-aid to the abstruseness that isn’t accompanying to Robinson visiting websites about strokes. It’s accessible Acxiom had already affiliated the adaptable buzz to Robinson’s character afore she gave the buzz to her mother.

When new web action on the adaptable buzz from Robinson’s mother adumbrated the user was an beforehand person, Acxiom afield attributed that to Robinson, not alive that the buzz had afflicted owners.

Hannah says she can see a aphotic ancillary to all this abstracts tracking and customer profiling. Low-income bodies targeted with ads for chancy pay-day loans, targeted ads for jobs that exclude bodies of a assertive age.

But in her accurate case, because the aftereffect was aloof some junkmail, Hannah takes it in stride.

“It feels transactional to me. Like, I apperceive bodies are apparently watching and advantageous absorption to area I’m going. But because I’m accepting article out of it, usually aloof information, I don’t mind,” said Robinson.

“But it does empower me. Because now I do feel like I appetite to google absolutely random, antic things and aloof see what happens. So in a way, I feel absolute empowered, because I still accept the adeptness to ambush people. And that puts it aback in my court.”

If addition out how we’re targeted by advertisers can feel like a detective story, the aforementioned is accurate for the abstracts brokers aggravating to contour us.

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Across our arcade habits, our browsing history, and accessible records, the abstracts brokers are sleuthing around, aggravating to allotment calm the clues that explain the abstruseness of who we are and what we’ll buy.

Now that she knows that, Hannah’s attractive advanced to sending them on a few agrarian goose chases. Afterwards all, any acceptable abstruseness adventure has a few red herrings.

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